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Continuing north along the Gulf Coast, we landed in Crystal
Springs. We went there to see more
Manatees, and wow, did we see manatees! The Crystal River National Wildlife refuge is the only NWR
designed specifically for the protection of manatees. The water is crazy clean and clear, allowing an easy view to the bottom of the shallow river.
The springs have a constant 72 degree temperature
and provide warm water winter refuge for the manatees who gather together, bunched up in
the shallow, warm, clear waters. It
reminded us of Alaskan salmon, so dense that it appears possible to walk
across the water on their backs.
type of Manatee was saw is known as West Indian Manatees are large animals.
Adults weigh between 900 and 1200 pounds, and measure 9 to 10 feet in length.
Their bodies are shaped like an elongated oval with a paddle-shaped tail
providing effective propulsion. Baby manatees come into the world weighing
between 60 and 70 lbs. Single births are most common. Occasionally one sees a mother with two infants but twins are rare. Manatee calves remain with their mothers and continue to nurse for as long as two years.
Florida manatees have a low metabolic rate and a
very low tolerance for cold weather. When winter settles over North America,
manatees seek out warmer water, which is why they are so abundant around Citrus
County, with its many spring fed rivers that remain constantly—and
comfortably—mild regardless of the weather. Manatees do well in salt or fresh
water. Their diet is totally vegetarian, and to maintain themselves, adults eat
10 to 15 percent of their body weight each day (about 100 pounds) in aquatic
seems that manatees spend about half their time sleeping. They drift down to
the bottom in relatively shallow waters and sleep. Being air-breathing mammals,
of course, they need to take a breath now and then, at intervals as long as 20
minutes. They rise to the surface, exhale noisily through the nostrils located
on the tip of their snout, take a deep breath and sink back down to resume
Manatees don’t have any natural enemies, and
under ideal conditions they can live 60 or more years. The biggest threat to
manatees comes from human activity. They suffer cuts from motorboat propellers,
they get caught in navigation locks, spillways and other water control systems,
they eat dangerous discarded junk, and they get caught in fish nets and crabbing lines. Overall, according to those who study manatees, their most serious threat comes
from a loss of habitat. As coastlines and river banks are increasingly
developed, the manatee population declines.
In recent years there has been a great deal of
interest in Florida’s migratory population of West Indian manatees. Efforts to
conduct an annual census include aerial observations from helicopters,
concentrating on favorite spots such as large, spring-fed pools and the outflow
of cooling water from electrical power plants puts the
number at 2,600. The mobility of
manatees impedes efforts at counting their numbers. There
were 70 Manatees in the crystal river basin the day we were there (according to the on-site volunteer ‘counters’). Manatees are protected in the United States
under federal laws, and additionally, in Florida, by the Florida Manatee
Sanctuary Act of 1978.
Cedar Key (population was 702 (the population in 1870 was 400 people)) is a small gulf coast island nestled in a cluster of islands near the mainland. The Cedar Keys are named for the Eastern Red Cedar, once abundant in the area.
The VERY shallow waters make the tides look extreme by revealing vast oyster beds at low tide
The shallow waters around the island are also traps for boats
There is a small tourist waterfront area with an interesting restaurant opportunity ... anyone interested?
Evidence suggests human occupation as far back as the Paleo period (12,000 years ago) and the first maps of the area date to 1542, when it was labeled by a Spanish cartographer. The islands were permanently settled in 1839. Cedar Key became an important port, shipping lumber and palm fiber products to the mainland. By 1860 mills were producing "cedar" slats for shipment to northernpencil factories.
Early in his career as a naturalist, John Muir walked 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from Louisville, Kentucky, to Cedar Key in just two months in 1867. Muir contracted malaria while working in a sawmill in Cedar Key. He wrote:
"For nineteen years my vision was bounded by forests, but today, emerging from a multitude of tropical plants, I beheld the Gulf of Mexico stretching away unbounded, except by the sky. What dreams and speculative matter for thought arose as I stood on the strand, gazing out on the burnished, treeless plain. "
Cedar Key was an important source of salt for the Confederacy during the Civil war. The salt, manufactured by boiling down salt water, was used for packing and and preserving meats. The factory produced 160 bushels of salt PER DAY using kettles like this:
During the fourth storm of the 1896 Atlantic hurricane season a 10-foot storm surge swept over the town, killing more than 100 people. Winds north of town were estimated at 125 miles per hour. The hurricane wiped out the juniper trees still standing and destroyed all the mills.Remains of pencil making mill
Newer homes on the island are built on hurricane 'proof' stilts.
The fishing boats are interesting, with no stern, allowing easy access to clam and oyster beds
Cedar Key is an old-fashioned fishing village, now
a tourist center with a developing
clam-based aquaculture industry. It reminded us of
Solomons Island (Maryland) 50 years ago ... quaint, natural, and quiet.
From our campsite, we rode our bikes into and all around town.